- It would be helpful to discuss forms of energy prior to this lesson, so students will have background information.
- For ideas on teaching about forms of energy, see the Science and Children article, Hunting for Energy: http://static.nsta.org/files/sc0912_42.pdf
- Moving toys could also be used to introduce forms of energy.
- Give the students solar toys (such as a dancing flower)
- wind-up toys and ask what makes them move
- Light energy (in the solar toys) and
- motion energy (in the wind-up toys) provide the energy to make the toys work.
- Ultra-Simple Generator (recommended for about Grade 4)
- Energy Transfer Video
- Can students figure out how it works?
8th Grade Windmill Project Westtown School
|SOIL MOISTURE AND PERMEABILITYThe composition of the soil has important consequences on its permeability towards water and on its ability of keeping it. In a flower pot does it retain water or does it drain well. With this experiments you will be able to evaluate the characteristics of some basic components of soil.
1 – Put sand in one glass, clay in another, and mixed soil rich in humus in a third. Push a finger into each glass and smear the sample to the wall of the glass. Pour some water in each glass and observe what it happens: in the glass with sand the water falls to the bottom quickly, in the one with clay water remains in the top or falls very slowly, in the one with mixed soil and humus water is absorbed and distributed in a homogenous manner (figure 2). Try to give an explanation of these different properties. What consequences can a storm have on lands with these different compositions?
2 – Assess the drainage and water holding ability of different soils and make a connection with their composition determined from the previous experiment.
In this test we have not taken into account the important role of the organic substances provided by the humus.
http://ag.arizona.edu/turf/tips1095.html Soil Characteristics and How They Affect Soil Moisture
http://wcuvax1.wcu.edu/~burr/soilinfo.html Soil permeability
Internet keywords: soil permeability moisture.